The oldest prehistory of Kenya is best known for the research done by L. S. B. Leakey and G. L. Isaac.
Many sites have become famous for have returned the remains of very ancient hominids: Baringo dated 9 million years ago, Lukeino dating back to 6 million years and Lothagam dated about 5 million years ago.
Archaic industries were found in particular in the Koobi Fora region East of the Turkana Lake: Oldowan in the KBS Site whose oldest levels dated to about 1.8 million years; evolved Oldowan from Karari levels, dated to about 1.5 million years.
Industries attributed to this phase are also known to Chesowanja, in central Kenya, where there are remains of robust Australopithecus dated to about 1.4 million years.
Levels of different phases of the Acheulean are known in the important Olorgesailie site, that lies 50 km South-West of Nairobi, and in the Isenya one.
An Acheulean, associated with human remains attributed to a representative of archaic Homo Sapiens, comes from the Kanjera site.
Industries of Middle Stone Age and Late Stone Age are, among other things, around Isenya and Lukenya Hill, near Nairobi.
Upper Palaeolithic type complexes, known under the name of Eburriano, were met at Gamble's Cave, in the central area of the Rift and Nderit Drift, South of the Nakuru Lake.
Camps of fishermen of an era between 9,000 and 5,000 b.C. were discovered at Ileret, in Lothagam and Lowasera, on the Eastern shore of the Turkana Lake.